Spirogyra — A Multicellular, Filamentous, Unbranched, Green Algae

Spirogyra is a green, multicellular, filamentous alga having unbranched filamentous thallus. Cylindrical cells of the thallus are joined end to end with each other.

Common names:

  • Water silk
  • Mermaid’s tresses
  • Blanket weed

Classification

DomainEukaryota
KingdomPlantae
Division/PhylumChlorophyta
ClassZygnematophyceae
OrderZygnematales
FamilyZygnemataceae
GenusSpirogyra
Classification of Spirogyra

Habitat

Spirogyra is commonly found as green-slimy patches on the ground in banks of stagnant freshwater bodies like lakes and ponds having more than 500 species discovered till now.

Morphology & anatomy

cell structure of spirogyra
Cell structure of Spirogyra

Each filament consists of a row of cylindrical cells that are identical in structure. The filament is enclosed in a mucilaginous sheath.

The cell wall is made up of cellulose and pectin. There is no differentiation in the base or the apex of the filament. Each cell has one or two prominent ribbon-like chloroplasts spirally or helically arranged.

In the chloroplast, a large body named pyrenoid body (contains protein besides starch) is present. The cell has a single nucleus which lies in the center of the large cell vacuole and is held in its place by cytoplasmic strands.

Reproduction

There is no asexual reproduction in Spirogyra. However, it may reproduce vegetatively by fragmentation when the filament breaks into two or more parts and each one of them grows dividing mitotically.

Sexual reproduction in Spirogyra is very common. Thallus of Spirogyra is haploid (n). In Spirogyra gametes are non-flagellated (non-motile) and similar in size (isogamy). Conjugation may take place between different filaments or between the two cells of the same filament.

The conjugation is dived into two forms, the first one is known as scalari form or ladder-like conjugation, and the latter is known as lateral conjugation.

Scalariform conjugation

Two filaments come in contact in a parallel direction. A protuberance which is a tubular outgrowth called the conjugation tube is formed from the corresponding cells.

The wall between the two tubes gets dissolved. The protoplasmic contents of the cells of one filament lose water and become rounded and are known as gametes.

All gametes of one filament behave as males (+) and they flow to the corresponding cell through the conjugation tube where they fuse with the recipient gamete and form a thick-walled zygospore which soon turns black.

Lateral conjugation

On one side of the partition wall in between two cells of the same filament a conjugation tube develops. The rest of the protoplasm loses water and forms gametes.

Further Reading:  Juvenility

The gametes of alternating cells flow to the next cell and produce zygospores. Each zygospore is globular and remains dormant for some time.

The diploid nucleus of the zygospore undergoes meiosis and results in the formation of your haploid nuclei. Out of the three degenerate and only one survives.

On germination the thick wall of the zygospore bursts. The internal contents grow to form a short filament. By mitotic division, it enlarges and gives rise to a fully developed filament.

In this alga, mitotic division takes place before germination. So haploid filamentous stage of alga is dominating.

Species

Spirogyra is categorized on the basis of thallus namely they are:

  1. Homothallic species
  2. Heterothallic species

Homothallic species

Species of Spirogyra which have not sexually different types of filaments or have male and female reproductive structures on the same thallus.

Heterothallic species

Species that have sexually different types of filaments in which the opposite sexual functions are performed by different cells of a single filament. It can be contrasted to heterothallic.

Members

  1. Spirogyra abbreviata
  2. Spirogyra acanthophora
  3. Spirogyra acumbentis
  4. Spirogyra adjerensis Gauthier
  5. Spirogyra adnata
  6. Spirogyra adornata
  7. Spirogyra aequinoctialis
  8. Spirogyra affinis
  9. Spirogyra africana
  10. Spirogyra ahmedabadensis
  11. Spirogyra alpina
  12. Spirogyra alternata
  13. Spirogyra amplectens
  14. Spirogyra ampliata
  15. Spirogyra anchora
  16. Spirogyra angolensis
  17. Spirogyra angulata
  18. Spirogyra anomala
  19. Spirogyra anzygoapora
  20. Spirogyra aphanosculpta
  21. Spirogyra aplanospora
  22. Spirogyra arcta
  23. Spirogyra arcuata
  24. Spirogyra areolata
  25. Spirogyra arizonensis
  26. Spirogyra arthuri
  27. Spirogyra articulata
  28. Spirogyra asiatica
  29. Spirogyra atasiana
  30. Spirogyra atrobrunnea
  31. Spirogyra aubvillei
  32. Spirogyra australica
  33. Spirogyra australiensis
  34. Spirogyra austriaca
  35. Spirogyra azygospora
  36. Spirogyra baileyi
  37. Spirogyra batekiana
  38. Spirogyra bellis
  39. Spirogyra bicalyptrata
  40. Spirogyra bichromatophora
  41. Spirogyra biformis
  42. Spirogyra biharensis
  43. Spirogyra bii
  44. Spirogyra bireticulata
  45. Spirogyra borealis
  46. Spirogyra borgeana
  47. Spirogyra borgei
  48. Spirogyra borkuense
  49. Spirogyra borysthenica
  50. Spirogyra bourrellyana
  51. Spirogyra braziliensis
  52. Spirogyra britannica
  53. Spirogyra brunnea
  54. Spirogyra buchetii
  55. Spirogyra bullata
  56. Spirogyra calcarea
  57. Spirogyra calchaquiesiae
  58. Spirogyra californica
  59. Spirogyra calospora
  60. Spirogyra canaliculata
  61. Spirogyra cardinia
  62. Spirogyra caroliniana
  63. Spirogyra castanacea
  64. Spirogyra cataeniformis
  65. Spirogyra catenaeformis
  66. Spirogyra cavata
  67. Spirogyra chakiaensis
  68. Spirogyra chandigarhensis
  69. Spirogyra chekiangensis
  70. Spirogyra chenii
  71. Spirogyra chungkingensis
  72. Spirogyra chuniae
  73. Spirogyra circumlineata
  74. Spirogyra clavata
  75. Spirogyra cleveana
  76. Spirogyra colligata
  77. Spirogyra columbiana
  78. Spirogyra communis
  79. Spirogyra condensata
  80. Spirogyra congolensis
  81. Spirogyra conspicua
  82. Spirogyra convoluta
  83. Spirogyra corrugata
  84. Spirogyra costata
  85. Spirogyra costulata
  86. Spirogyra coumbiana
  87. Spirogyra crassa
  88. Spirogyra crassispina
  89. Spirogyra crassiuscula
  90. Spirogyra crassivallicularis
  91. Spirogyra crassoidea
  92. Spirogyra crenulata
  93. Spirogyra croasdaleae
  94. Spirogyra cyanosporum
  95. Spirogyra cylindrica
  96. Spirogyra cylindrosperma
  97. Spirogyra cylindrospora
  98. Spirogyra czubinskii
  99. Spirogyra czurdae
  100. Spirogyra czurdiana
  101. Spirogyra dacimina
  102. Spirogyra daedalea
  103. Spirogyra daedaleoides
  104. Spirogyra danica
  105. Spirogyra decimina
  106. Spirogyra densa
  107. Spirogyra denticulata
  108. Spirogyra dentireticulata
  109. Spirogyra desikacharyensis
  110. Spirogyra dialyderma
  111. Spirogyra dicephala
  112. Spirogyra dictyospora
  113. Spirogyra diluta
  114. Spirogyra dimorpha
  115. Spirogyra discoidea
  116. Spirogyra distenta
  117. Spirogyra diversizygotica
  118. Spirogyra djalonensis Gauthier
  119. Spirogyra djiliense Gauthier
  120. Spirogyra dodgeana
  121. Spirogyra drilonensis
  122. Spirogyra dubia
  123. Spirogyra echinata
  124. Spirogyra echinospora
  125. Spirogyra eillipsospora
  126. Spirogyra elegans
  127. Spirogyra elegantissima
  128. Spirogyra ellipsospora
  129. Spirogyra elliptica
  130. Spirogyra elongata
  131. Spirogyra elongata
  132. Spirogyra emilianensis
  133. Spirogyra endogranulata
  134. Spirogyra exilis
  135. Spirogyra fallax
  136. Spirogyra fassula
  137. Spirogyra favosa
  138. Spirogyra fennica
  139. Spirogyra ferruginea
  140. Spirogyra flavescens
  141. Spirogyra flavicans
  142. Spirogyra fluviatilis
  143. Spirogyra formosa
  144. Spirogyra fossa
  145. Spirogyra fossulata
  146. Spirogyra foveolata
  147. Spirogyra franconica
  148. Spirogyra frankliniana
  149. Spirogyra frigida
  150. Spirogyra fritschiana
  151. Spirogyra fukienica
  152. Spirogyra fuzhouensis
  153. Spirogyra gallica
  154. Spirogyra gaterslebensis
  155. Spirogyra gauthier
  156. Spirogyra gauthieri
  157. Spirogyra gharbensis
  158. Spirogyra ghosei
  159. Spirogyra gibberosa
  160. Spirogyra glabra
  161. Spirogyra globulispora
  162. Spirogyra gobonensis
  163. Spirogyra goetzei
  164. Spirogyra gracilis
  165. Spirogyra granulata
  166. Spirogyra gratiana
  167. Spirogyra groenlandica
  168. Spirogyra guangchowensis
  169. Spirogyra guineense
  170. Spirogyra gujaratensis
  171. Spirogyra gurdaspurensis
  172. Spirogyra haimenensis
  173. Spirogyra hartigii
  174. Spirogyra hassalii
  175. Spirogyra hassallii
  176. Spirogyra hatillensis
  177. Spirogyra heeriana
  178. Spirogyra henanensis
  179. Spirogyra herbipolensis
  180. Spirogyra heterospora
  181. Spirogyra hoehnei
  182. Spirogyra hoggarica
  183. Spirogyra hollandiae
  184. Spirogyra hopeiensis
  185. Spirogyra hunanensis
  186. Spirogyra hungarica
  187. Spirogyra hyalina
  188. Spirogyra hymerae
  189. Spirogyra inconstans
  190. Spirogyra incrassata
  191. Spirogyra indica
  192. Spirogyra inflata
  193. Spirogyra insignis
  194. Spirogyra insueta
  195. Spirogyra intermedia
  196. Spirogyra intorta
  197. Spirogyra ionia
  198. Spirogyra irregularis
  199. Spirogyra ivorensis
  200. Spirogyra iyengarii
  201. Spirogyra jaoensis
  202. Spirogyra jaoi
  203. Spirogyra jassiensis
  204. Spirogyra jatobae
  205. Spirogyra jogensis
  206. Spirogyra jugalis
  207. Spirogyra juliana
  208. Spirogyra kaffirita
  209. Spirogyra kamatii
  210. Spirogyra karnalae
  211. Spirogyra kolae
  212. Spirogyra koreana
  213. Spirogyra krubergii
  214. Spirogyra kundaensis
  215. Spirogyra kuusamoensis
  216. Spirogyra labbei Gauthier
  217. Spirogyra labyrinthica
  218. Spirogyra lacustris
  219. Spirogyra lagerheimii
  220. Spirogyra laka
  221. Spirogyra lallandiae
  222. Spirogyra lambertiana
  223. Spirogyra lamellata
  224. Spirogyra lamellosa
  225. Spirogyra lapponica
  226. Spirogyra latireticulata
  227. Spirogyra latviensis
  228. Spirogyra laxa
  229. Spirogyra laxistrata
  230. Spirogyra lenticularis
  231. Spirogyra lentiformis
  232. Spirogyra lians
  233. Spirogyra libyca
  234. Spirogyra lismorensis
  235. Spirogyra lodziensis
  236. Spirogyra longifissa
  237. Spirogyra lubrica
  238. Spirogyra lucknowensis
  239. Spirogyra lushanensis
  240. Spirogyra luteospora
  241. Spirogyra lutetiana
  242. Spirogyra lymerae
  243. Spirogyra macrospora
  244. Spirogyra maghrebiana
  245. Spirogyra major
  246. Spirogyra majuscula
  247. Spirogyra malmeana
  248. Spirogyra manormae
  249. Spirogyra maravillosa
  250. Spirogyra marchica
  251. Spirogyra margalefii
  252. Spirogyra margaritata
  253. Spirogyra marocana
  254. Spirogyra maxima
  255. Spirogyra megaspora
  256. Spirogyra meinningensis
  257. Spirogyra meridionalis
  258. Spirogyra miamiana
  259. Spirogyra microdictyon
  260. Spirogyra microgranulata
  261. Spirogyra micropunctata
  262. Spirogyra microspora
  263. Spirogyra mienningensis
  264. Spirogyra minor
  265. Spirogyra minuticrassoidea
  266. Spirogyra minutifossa
  267. Spirogyra mirabilis
  268. Spirogyra miranda
  269. Spirogyra mirifica
  270. Spirogyra mithalaensis
  271. Spirogyra moebii
  272. Spirogyra monodiana
  273. Spirogyra montserrati
  274. Spirogyra multiconjugata
  275. Spirogyra multiformis
  276. Spirogyra multistrata
  277. Spirogyra multitrata
  278. Spirogyra mutabilis
  279. Spirogyra narcissiana
  280. Spirogyra natchita
  281. Spirogyra nawaschinii
  282. Spirogyra neglecta
  283. Spirogyra neorhizobranchialis
  284. Spirogyra nitida
  285. Spirogyra nodifera
  286. Spirogyra notabilis
  287. Spirogyra nova
  288. Spirogyra novae
  289. Spirogyra nyctigama
  290. Spirogyra oblata
  291. Spirogyra oblonga
  292. Spirogyra obovata
  293. Spirogyra occidentalis
  294. Spirogyra oligocarpa
  295. Spirogyra olivascens
  296. Spirogyra ollicola
  297. Spirogyra oltmannsii
  298. Spirogyra orientalis
  299. Spirogyra orthospira
  300. Spirogyra ouarsenica
  301. Spirogyra oudhensis
  302. Spirogyra ovigera
  303. Spirogyra pachyderma
  304. Spirogyra palghatensis
  305. Spirogyra paludosa
  306. Spirogyra papulata
  307. Spirogyra paradoxa
  308. Spirogyra paraguayensis
  309. Spirogyra parva
  310. Spirogyra parvispora
  311. Spirogyra parvula
  312. Spirogyra pascheriana
  313. Spirogyra patliputri
  314. Spirogyra peipeingensis
  315. Spirogyra pellucida
  316. Spirogyra perforans
  317. Spirogyra plena
  318. Spirogyra poljanskii
  319. Spirogyra polymorpha
  320. Spirogyra polytaeniata
  321. Spirogyra porangabae
  322. Spirogyra porticalis
  323. Spirogyra pratensis
  324. Spirogyra princeps
  325. Spirogyra proavita
  326. Spirogyra prolifica
  327. Spirogyra propria
  328. Spirogyra protecta
  329. Spirogyra pseudoaedaloides
  330. Spirogyra pseudobellis
  331. Spirogyra pseudocorrugata
  332. Spirogyra pseudocylindrica
  333. Spirogyra pseudogibberosa
  334. Spirogyra pseudogranulata
  335. Spirogyra pseudojuergensii
  336. Spirogyra pseudomaiuscula
  337. Spirogyra pseudomajuscula
  338. Spirogyra pseudomaxima
  339. Spirogyra pseudoneglecta
  340. Spirogyra pseudonodifera
  341. Spirogyra pseudoplena
  342. Spirogyra pseudopulchrata
  343. Spirogyra pseudoreticulata
  344. Spirogyra pseudorhizopus
  345. Spirogyra pseudosahnii
  346. Spirogyra pseudospreeiana
  347. Spirogyra pseudosubreticulata
  348. Spirogyra pseudotenuissima
  349. Spirogyra pseudotetrapla
  350. Spirogyra pseudotexensis
  351. Spirogyra pseudovarians
  352. Spirogyra pseudovenusta
  353. Spirogyra pseudowoodii
  354. Spirogyra pulchella
  355. Spirogyra pulchra
  356. Spirogyra pulchrifigurata
  357. Spirogyra puncticulata
  358. Spirogyra punctulata
  359. Spirogyra quadrata
  360. Spirogyra quadrilaminata
  361. Spirogyra quezelii
  362. Spirogyra quilonensis
  363. Spirogyra quinina
  364. Spirogyra quinquilaminata
  365. Spirogyra randhawae
  366. Spirogyra rattanii
  367. Spirogyra rectangularis
  368. Spirogyra rectispira
  369. Spirogyra regularis
  370. Spirogyra reinhardii
  371. Spirogyra reticulata
  372. Spirogyra reticulatum
  373. Spirogyra reticuliana
  374. Spirogyra rhizobrachialis
  375. Spirogyra rhizobranchialis
  376. Spirogyra rhizoides
  377. Spirogyra rhizopus
  378. Spirogyra rhodopea
  379. Spirogyra rivularis
  380. Spirogyra robusta
  381. Spirogyra rugosa
  382. Spirogyra rugulosa
  383. Spirogyra rupestris
  384. Spirogyra sahnii
  385. Spirogyra salina
  386. Spirogyra sanjingensis
  387. Spirogyra sarmae
  388. Spirogyra schmidtii
  389. Spirogyra schweickerdtii
  390. Spirogyra scripta
  391. Spirogyra scrobiculata
  392. Spirogyra sculpta
  393. Spirogyra semiornata
  394. Spirogyra senegalensis
  395. Spirogyra setiformis
  396. Spirogyra shantungensis
  397. Spirogyra shanxiensis
  398. Spirogyra shenzaensis
  399. Spirogyra siamensis
  400. Spirogyra siberica
  401. Spirogyra silesiaca
  402. Spirogyra sinensis
  403. Spirogyra singularis
  404. Spirogyra skujae
  405. Spirogyra skvortzowii
  406. Spirogyra smithii
  407. Spirogyra speciosa
  408. Spirogyra sphaerica
  409. Spirogyra sphaerocarpa
  410. Spirogyra sphaerospora
  411. Spirogyra spinescens
  412. Spirogyra splendida
  413. Spirogyra spreeiana
  414. Spirogyra subaffinis
  415. Spirogyra subbullata
  416. Spirogyra subcolligata
  417. Spirogyra subcrassa
  418. Spirogyra subcrassiuscula
  419. Spirogyra subcylindrospora
  420. Spirogyra subechinata
  421. Spirogyra subfossulata
  422. Spirogyra subglabra
  423. Spirogyra sublambertiana
  424. Spirogyra subluteospora
  425. Spirogyra submajuscula
  426. Spirogyra submargaritata
  427. Spirogyra submarina
  428. Spirogyra submaxima
  429. Spirogyra subobovata
  430. Spirogyra subpapulatata
  431. Spirogyra subpellucida
  432. Spirogyra subpolytaeniata
  433. Spirogyra subpratensis
  434. Spirogyra subreflexa
  435. Spirogyra subreticulata
  436. Spirogyra subsalina
  437. Spirogyra subsalsa
  438. Spirogyra subsalso
  439. Spirogyra subtropica
  440. Spirogyra suburbana
  441. Spirogyra subvelata
  442. Spirogyra sulcata
  443. Spirogyra sundanensis
  444. Spirogyra superba
  445. Spirogyra supervarians
  446. Spirogyra szechwanensis
  447. Spirogyra taftiana
  448. Spirogyra taiyuanensis
  449. Spirogyra tandae
  450. Spirogyra taylorii
  451. Spirogyra tenuior
  452. Spirogyra tenuispina
  453. Spirogyra tenuissima
  454. Spirogyra teodoresci
  455. Spirogyra ternata
  456. Spirogyra tetrapla
  457. Spirogyra tibetensis
  458. Spirogyra tjibodensis
  459. Spirogyra tolosana
  460. Spirogyra torta
  461. Spirogyra trachycarpa
  462. Spirogyra transeauiana
  463. Spirogyra triplicata
  464. Spirogyra trochainii
  465. Spirogyra tropica Kützing
  466. Spirogyra tsingtaoensis
  467. Spirogyra tuberculata
  468. Spirogyra tuberculosa
  469. Spirogyra tucumaniae
  470. Spirogyra tumida
  471. Spirogyra turfosa
  472. Spirogyra tuwensis
  473. Spirogyra ugandense
  474. Spirogyra unduliseptum
  475. Spirogyra urbana
  476. Spirogyra van-zanten
  477. Spirogyra variabilis
  478. Spirogyra varians
  479. Spirogyra variformis
  480. Spirogyra varshaii
  481. Spirogyra vasishtii
  482. Spirogyra velata
  483. Spirogyra venkataramanii
  484. Spirogyra venosa
  485. Spirogyra venusta
  486. Spirogyra vermiculata
  487. Spirogyra verrucogranulata
  488. Spirogyra verrucosa
  489. Spirogyra verruculosa
  490. Spirogyra voltaica
  491. Spirogyra wangii
  492. Spirogyra weberi
  493. Spirogyra weishuiensis
  494. Spirogyra weletischii
  495. Spirogyra welwitschii
  496. Spirogyra westii
  497. Spirogyra willei
  498. Spirogyra wittrockii
  499. Spirogyra wollnyi
  500. Spirogyra wrightiana
  501. Spirogyra wuchanensis
  502. Spirogyra wuhanensis
  503. Spirogyra xiaoganensis
  504. Spirogyra xinxiangensis
  505. Spirogyra yexianensis
  506. Spirogyra yuin
  507. Spirogyra yunnanensis
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