Critically Endangered Species of Birds, Mammals, Reptiles, Fish, and Amphibians in India: Biodiversity Preservation

India, a land of breathtaking biodiversity, is home to an astonishing array of flora and fauna. However, beneath the surface of this natural treasure trove lies a harsh reality – a number of species are teetering on the brink of extinction. In this article, we will delve into the plight of some of India’s most critically endangered species, spanning birds, mammals, fish, reptiles, and amphibians.


  1. Himalayan Quail (Ophrysia superciliosa):
    Once abundant in the Himalayan foothills, this charming bird has become an elusive ghost. Extensive habitat loss and hunting are the primary reasons for its critical status.
  2. Pink-headed Duck (Rhodonessa caryophyllacea):
    Known for its striking appearance, the pink-headed duck is now feared extinct. Wetland degradation and hunting have been catastrophic for its survival.
  3. Siberian Crane (Grus leucogeranus):
    These majestic cranes migrate to India but face threats like habitat loss, disturbance, and poaching. Conservation efforts are crucial for their survival.
  4. Sociable Lapwing (Vanellus gregarius):
    Rapid agricultural expansion has resulted in the decline of this migratory bird. Preserving its wetland habitats is essential.
  5. Spoon-billed Sandpiper (Eurynorhynchus pygmeus):
    This charismatic wader faces habitat loss along its migratory routes. International collaboration is vital for its protection.


  1. Andaman White-toothed Shrew (Crocidura andamanensis):
    Endemic to the Andaman Islands, this shrew is threatened by habitat destruction due to development and tourism.
  2. Jenkin’s Shrew (Crocidura jenkinsi):
    Found in the Western Ghats, habitat fragmentation poses a severe threat to this species.
  3. Nicobar Shrew (Crocidura nicobarica):
    Habitat loss on the Nicobar Islands has critically impacted this shrew’s population.
  4. Large Rock-rat (Cremnomys elvira):
    Endemic to the rocky hills of southern India, this rat faces habitat degradation and predation by invasive species.
  5. Malabar Civet (Viverra civettina):
    Rapid deforestation and habitat destruction have pushed this civet to the brink of extinction.
  6. Namdapha Flying Squirrel (Biswamoyopterus biswasi):
    Found in the remote jungles of Arunachal Pradesh, this squirrel’s habitat is threatened by logging and human encroachment.


  1. Knifetooth Sawfish (Anoxypristis cuspidata):
    Overfishing and habitat degradation in India’s coastal areas have severely affected this unique species.
  2. Ganges Shark (Glyphis gangeticus):
    Pollution, habitat destruction, and bycatch have led to a dramatic decline in Ganges shark populations.
  3. Pondicherry Shark (Carcharhinus hemiodon):
    This shark faces similar threats, particularly in the coastal regions of southern India.
  4. Largetooth Sawfish (Pristis microdon):
    Habitat degradation and bycatch are driving this sawfish towards extinction.
  5. Deccan Labeo (Labeo potail):
    Pollution and habitat destruction in India’s rivers and lakes threaten this freshwater fish.


  1. Hawksbill Turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata):
    Hawksbill turtles are under threat due to illegal trade in their beautiful shells and habitat degradation.
  2. Red-crowned Roof Turtle (Batagur kachuga):
    Destruction of riverine habitats, sand mining, and illegal collection pose grave dangers to this species.


  1. Fejervarya murthii, Indirana gundia, Philautus sanctisilvaticus, Raorchestes shillongensis:
    These amphibians, found in various regions of India, are under threat due to habitat loss, pollution, and climate change.

In conclusion, the critically endangered species of India are living on borrowed time, and their survival depends on urgent and coordinated conservation efforts. Protecting their habitats, curbing illegal trade, and raising awareness about their plight are essential steps towards ensuring a future for these unique and precious species.

It is our responsibility to act as stewards of the environment and prevent the irreversible loss of these incredible creatures that make India’s biodiversity so exceptional.

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